Important Players Opposing the Edits Suggested by Hindu Groups

Several groups, including FOIL, its affiliates like Friends of South Asian (FOSA) and Christian Missionary organizations launched a robust campaign against the changes proposed for Hinduism in the California textbooks. This section highlights some of the groups behind the vitriolic campaign.

1)       Organizations –

a)       Friends of South Asia (FOSA)

FOSA was a key organizer of the campaign.  The website is registered to Ali Hasan Cemendtaur[1], who was born in Karachi, Pakistan and now lives in San Jose, California.[2] FOSA was started by Cemendtaur and eight others[3] and is hosted by EKTA, another leftist/communist organization discussed further in this section.  FOSA’s mission is to work towards a peaceful, prosperous, and hate-free South Asia and to promote respect for and celebrate the diversity and plurality of South Asia. [4] However, as shown in Chapter IV, FOSA’s depiction of India and Hinduism is highly biased when compared to that of Pakistan, Bangladesh and Islam.

b)       Dalit Freedom Network (DFN)

As discussed earlier, DFN is the hardcore Christian missionary organization masking itself as the advocate for the rights of the Dalits (untouchables).  DFN considers Kancha Ilaiah (also discussed earlier) as a champion of Dalit causes.  In a letter sent to the California Board of Education, signed by Kancha Ilaiah, Joseph D’souza (president of DFN) and Udit Raj (Chairman, All India Confederation of Scheduled Castes/Scheduled Tribes and a Board Member of DFN), DFN dragged the politics of India into the argument and protested the changes.[5]  It pushed a rather inaccurate view that “the caste system has ruled social interaction in India for more than 3,500 years.”[6]

c)        Dalit Solidarity Forum in the US

Jebaroja Singh, a professor at William Paterson University and the president of Dalit Solidarity Forum in the US, also sent a letter to the California Board of Education, opposing changes suggested by the Hindu American groups.  Singh also drags the politics of India into the depiction of Hinduism in a sixth grade textbook to talk about the “…injustices suffered by Dalit communities in India…”[7] and that such things are “…very much a contemporary reality in India, a reality with deep roots in our history.”[8]  While such ‘protests’ may be appropriate in textbooks catered to more advanced studies about India and Hinduism, these are not appropriate in textbooks designed to show all religions in a positive light and to generate a feeling of pride in a person’s religion or culture.

It is important to note that Singh’s DSF is a part and parcel of the Episcopal Church[9].  She is also married to a Christian priest[10].  The website of the Episcopal Diocese of Rochester provides full information about DSF and its mission.

The Dalit Solidarity Forum in the US, Inc. became active as a registered non-profit organization in 1999 in Morristown, NJ as a result of the 1998 International Signature Campaign for Dalit Human Rights, which was led by the National Campaign for Dalit human Rights (NCDHR). The campaign was housed in St. Peter’s Episcopal Church, Morristown, NJ.[11]

The main objective of this campaign, led by the Church, was to raise conundrum about the ‘dalit problem’ at an international level and label it is a ‘human rights’ problem to force the hands of the Indian government.  While policy changes are necessary to address various problems in India, the backing of the Church poses a significant opposition to secular solutions.

The Episcopal Church lists one of the main accomplishments of DSF as establishing a Christian school in partnership with several churches in US and in India.  According to its website:

One significant achievement of DSF includes the establishment of a school for Dalit children in India, a long-term project that came to fruition through a unique partnership between DSF and St. Peter’s Episcopal Church, St. Alban’s Episcopal Church in New Jersey, and the Church of South India, Diocese of Madras, under the leadership of Bishop Devasahayam[12]

Singh is also a board member of the D.deVoe Foundation, based in Mount Freedom, NJ.[13]  The foundation raises money for St. Peter’s English Medium School in Andhra Pradesh, India[14], shown in Figure 4.  Richard Haslet, the Treasurer of D.deVoe “has twelve years church lay leadership and twenty five years as a church school teacher and youth group mentor.”[15]  Similarly, Caryl Gwyneth Munn, the Secretary of the foundation “has traveled extensively, including two visits to the underprivileged areas of South India. She has spoken on the concerns of poverty, lack of education and caste persecution in India.”[16]

Hinduism is a natural enemy of Christian missionaries.  Therefore, any effort to portray Hinduism in a positive light is vehemently opposed by Christian missionaries working under the pretext of ‘uplifting the oppressed’ while hiding their real intentions to harvest infidel souls.

d)       Campaign to Stop Funding Hate (CSFH)

As discussed earlier, CSFH is the coalition started by FOIL and its affiliates that launched attacks on the Indian American charity India Development and Relief Fund as well as the American youth organization called Hindu Students Council.  While CSFH claims to stand in solidarity with all groups that want a hate free South Asia, no attempt is made by CSFH to highlight the human rights violations against Hindus in Bhutan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan, Afghanistan and India.  While CSFH demonizes Hinduism and India, it does not do the same to Islam and Pakistan.

e)        Organizing Youth!

The website of Friends of South Asia (FOSA) describes this organization as “a San Francisco based organization of South Asian activists that seeks to empower South Asian youth through political education and training.”[17] However, Organizing Youth! is another organization started by members of FOIL and its youth wing Youth Solidarity Summer (YSS).  In fact, June 2004 of the Ghadar, the mouthpiece of FOIL, publicizes the 2005 Organizing Youth! event under ‘Youth Activism’[18]

f)         Youth Solidarity Summer Collective

The website of FOSA describes Youth Solidarity Summer (YSS) as “a volunteer collective of artists, activists, educators and students providing alternate education for South Asian Youth in New York City”.[19]  Again, no mention is given to the fact that YSS is the youth wing of FOIL.

g)       Federation of Tamil Sangams of North America (FeTNA)

FeTNA is mentioned as “an umbrella organization of Tamil community organizations that function within the North American continent”.[20] “While it calls itself ‘a literary, educational, cultural, charitable, secular, and nonpartisan organization’, FeTNA has been accused of supporting the Sri Lankan terrorist group LTTE, and one of its former directors was arrested by the FBI for trying to bribe US officials in order to get the ban on LTTE lifted.”[21]

Similarly, “FeTNA uses its academic links to spread demonic images of Indian society, with the help of Tamil Nadu-based Dalit activists.”[22] FetNA was one of the major contributors to the Tamil Chair established at University of Berkeley in California[23].  One of the first professors invited by the Chair was Ilakkuvanar Maraimalai.  Marailmalai previously attended a linguistic conference where he expressed his delight to have learned “many things about the Mormon religion and the Church of the Latter Day Saints”.[24]  The Mormon Bible reminded him “of a prominent religious literature in Tamil, Tiruvachagam.”[25] “Like a true Dravidianist, Ilakkunavar believes that the Government of India discriminates against its Tamil citizens and that ‘India remain north’, and that present-day India is a ‘torture camp for religious minorities’”.[26]  George Hart, the current Chair holder, has used his post to emphasize the separateness of Tamil from Indian traditions.  “For instance, he organized a meeting of Western Tamil educators featuring Thomas Malten, who Tamil Studies department at Cologne University was closely associated with Germany’s Lutheran Church.  Other conferences organized by the Tamil Chair often feature papers that deconstruct traditional Tamil images of devotion, in the same manner as is found in modern Dravidian politics.’”[27]  “For example, a paper by Hart interprets Ramayana as ‘a strange work’ filled with contradictions between ‘Brahminical thought’ and ‘martial valor’”.[28]  “He sees Ramayana primarily yet ‘subtly’ as a way to oppress Dravidians.”[29]  This view is similar to the one expressed by Vijay Prashad of FOIL, as discussed earlier in the report.  “Hart claims that this was later reflected as the way that the ‘great military and imperial power of the Cholas was leavened by the Brahminical system that they supported’”.[30]  “In this manner, India’s classics are deconstructed as a method to tease out the oppression inherent in Indian civilization.”[31]

“FeTNA has also honored Jagat Gasper, a Catholic propagandist, who has used his proximity to Dravidian power centers for Christianizing the Tamil culture.”[32]  “In 2005, according to the Chicago Tribune, Illinois Congressman Danny K. Davis went on a FeTNA-sponsored trip to the Sri Lankan Tamil regions and acknowledged that he ‘knew that [FetNA was] associated with the Tamil Tigers’”.[33]

“FeTNA’s testimony at the California Curriculum Commission made the blatantly erroneous claim that ‘the Early Tamil texts clearly distinguish between Tamils and Aryans’”.[34]  Malhotra and Neelakandan provide a full Appendix (Appendix B) in their book showing this stance to be completely false.

h)       Dalit Shakti Kendra

Dalit Shakti Kendra (DSK) or “Dalit Empowerment Center” is an initiative of Navsarjan and Janvikas, an NGO based in Gujarat, India.  DSK describes itself as primarily a vocational training center serving economically and socially marginalized youth[35] who come from Dalit families.  According their website, a central part of DSK’s philosophy is “a redefinition of the word ‘Dalit’, thereby including Dalits from various economic, social and religious backgrounds.”[36]  However, just like all other organizations, institutions and individuals discussed in this report, DSK holds only Hinduism hostage for the ‘evils’ of the caste system and is another Dalit organization that is connected with the Christian Church.  DSK’s founder, Martin Macwan, is a Christian Dalit, supported by the Unitarian Church[37].  In a 2000 news alert, The Church acknowledges funding Macwan’s DSK through the Holdeen India Program for seven years[38].  In its introduction to the Caste System, the Church equates the Varnas (social classes) to Castes (which is more related to the Jatis of India and the word itself is Portuguese in origin and means race, breed or lineage).  Similarly, the Church subscribes to the racial Aryan Invasion Theory and declares that “[the] roots of the Hindu caste system were already in place between 1000 and 1500 B.C., when the Aryans settled in the Indus River valley.”[39]  Furthermore, the Church maintains that tribals predate the Aryan and Dravidian civilization.[40]  According to the Church, “The Rig Veda [emphasis original], a sacred text from the [Aryan] period, describes the four main castes (varnas) in traditional Hindu society.”[41] Such conclusions do nothing but undermine Hinduism, pin the origins of the Caste System and oppression on Hindu scriptural texts and create an atmosphere for ‘liberation of the oppressed’ by the Church and the West.

i)         National Campaign on Dalit Human Rights (NCDHR)

NCDHR was another signatory opposing the edits related to Hinduism in California textbooks.  It describes itself as a democratic secular platform led by Dalit women and men activists, with support and solidarity from movements and organizations, academics, individuals, people’s organizations and institutions throughout the country who are committed to work to protect and promote human rights of Dalits focusing on women and children.[42]  The organization serves as a coalition of four Dalit organizations – Dalit Ardhik Adhikar Andolan (DAAA), All India Dalit Mahila Adhikar Manch (AIDMAM), National Federation of Dalit Land Rights Movements (NFDLRM) and National Dalit Movement for Justice (NDMJ)[43].  However, NCDHR is yet another Dalit group that has deep relations with Christian churches all over the world.  In March 2009, a four day Global Ecumenical Conference on Justice for Dalits in Bangkok, Thailand, organized by the World Council of Churches (WCC) and the Lutheran World Federation (LWF) and hosted by the Christian Conference of Asia, drew 95 leaders and representatives of churches and human rights and development organizations worldwide.[44] The main objective of the conference was to highlight the Dalit issues in India and also talk about the killings of Dalit Christians by ‘Hindu militants’.  The conference was a continued effort to push the United Nations to recognize caste-based discrimination and crucify the ‘originator’ of the system – that is, Hinduism.  It is also disturbing that, through such conference, these Christian groups promote independent Dalit theology as if separate from and therefore oppressed by Hinduism.  According to the declaration of the conference, “churches are expected to implement awareness-raising programs, empower Dalits, monitor and respond to caste atrocities, encourage Dalits to express their culture in worship, liturgy and theology, and support Dalit women’s initiatives.”[45]  In fact, one of the sessions in the conference was a workshop on Dalit Theology: Principles and process[46].  Mr. Vijay Parmar, the National Convener of NCDHR, one of the main Dalit attendees of the conference, “appealed to the ecumenical family to make a ‘moral statement’ and help churches around the world become aware of caste-based discrimination.”[47]  “Participants at the conference committed themselves to making Dalit liberation a central mission objective.”[48] NCDHR is also a partner of Christian Aid, the UK based Christian coalition of over 40 British and Irish Protestant Churches.  In a March 2011 written testimony to the UK Government’s Department for International Development (DFID), Christian Aid highlighted the ongoing ‘social problems’ in India and stressed the need for the UK Government to intervene through the DFID as well as other policy tools.  Providing elaborate statistical data about poverty and ‘structural inequality’ (that is, caste based inequality blamed on the Hindu origins of the caste system), Christian Aid suggests:

Keeping in view the magnitude and deeper social and structural dimensions of poverty in India, DFID has a strong role to play in working alongside the Government of India and civil society to tackle poverty.  Christian Aid sees a very strong argument for continued, targeted UK aid to India, focused on the poorest states and communities, and for robust UK Government engagement with India’s Government about the inequalities that cause and characterise (sic) poverty there.[49]

Also, Malhotra and Neelakanda point out that “at the International Dalit Human Rights Conference in London (2000) the head of the Asia Team for Christian Aid presented a paper recommending that the governments which give aid to India should consult and act according to the advice provided by the missionary Dalit groups operating from the West.”[50]

NCDHR also presented written testimony to the UK Government in the same report.  In April 2006, Bishop John Gladwin, Chair of Christian Aid, gave the keynote address at a conference on Dalit Christian Rights, organized by the UK Charity Voice of Dalit International (VODI)[51].  In its 2007/2008 Annual Report, the UK Charity Dalit Solidarity Network (DSN-UK) highlighted a conference on Dalits at the UK Parliament, where Bishop Gladwin chaired a session called Reflections from India – Tackling Caste Globally, which included venomous anti-Hindu speakers like Kancha Ilaiah and Joseph D’Souza; Gladwin drew parallels between the Caste System and the abolition of slavery 200 years ago.[52] Vincent Manoharan, General Secretary of NCDHR was also present at the conference[53]  Gladwin is also a patron of both VODI[54] and DSN-UK.[55]

From the above examples, it is clear that most of the Dalit organizations campaigning against edits proposed by Hindu groups in the California textbooks have direct connections with various Christian churches around the world and in India.  This organizational nexus works closely to demonize Hinduism and blame all social evils of India onto Hinduism, and lobby world governments (like the UK government) to interfere into the domestic affairs of India.  Hinduism is crucified as the ‘evil oppressor’ and Christianity is positioned as the ‘holy emancipator’.     However, under the pretext of fighting for inequality and injustice, many of these Church organizations only support Dalits that have converted to Christianity or those that will readily convert to Christianity.

j)          Ekta

Ekta was one of the organizations that issued a joint press release with FOSA denouncing the efforts of the Hindu groups to portray Hinduism in the same manner as Christianity, Judaism, Islam and other religions.  Interestingly, Ekta’s website describes that it is on a “temporary hiatus” and urges visitors to go to the FOSA website![56]  Is there no difference between the two organizations?  Is Ekta merely a shell organization run by the same people that are behind FOSA, FOIL, etc.?

The organization’s goals focus on “[supporting] the artistic endeavors of South Asians in the literary, musical, performing and visual arts;  [providing] social and educational services to the South Asian community;  [supporting] charitable projects in South Asia; [collaborating] with other non-profit organizations for providing wider support”.[57]  However, Ekta, just like its brethren leftist/communist organizations, focuses mostly India and the ‘evils of Hindus’ and attempts to promote events, documentaries, artists and projects that portray India and Hinduism in a seriously negative manner.  Similarly, Ekta is very much associated with the leftist/communist organizations and forums that have been discussed so far in this report. Under the Resources section of Ekta’s site, (as shown in Figure 5), one can find links to organizations such as FOIL, FOSA, Campaign to Stop Funding Hate, Organizing Youth!, Coalition Against Communalism, RadDesi Summer, Youth Solidarity Summer, and many others[58].  Ekta also hosts the websites of Campaign to Stop Funding Hate, Organizing Youth!, Youth Solidarity Summer, Coalition Against Communalism, etc. [59].  Similarly, it hosts the website of FOSA, discussed earlier and in Chapter 4,[60] as well as the websites of the controversial film makers Anand Patwardhan and Rakesh Sharma.[61]  In 1996, Patwardhan directed a movie titled We Are Not Your Monkeys, which takes a seriously biased view of the Hindu deity Lord Rama and the epic Indian epic Ramayana.[62]

EktaResourcesSectionVinay Lal, who was discussed earlier, describes Patwardhan as “probably India’s most distinguished, and certainly one of its most controversial, documentary filmmakers; he has no peer among those working in the socialist tradition. He is consistently India’s ‘representative’ at documentary film festivals around the world.”[63] In 1998, FOIL’s Mir Ali Raza and Amitava Kumar interviewed Patwardhan, calling him “one of India’s distinguished filmmakers”.[64] One can only imagine the impact of such movies and filmmakers on the world opinion on India and Hinduism.

Another disturbing aspect is that these organizations put up the farce of being separate from each other when signing petitions, issuing press release, organizing protests, etc.  For example, in 2006, FOSA and Ekta, along with other groups like CAC (discussed below), FeTNA, etc. filed a Brief of Amici Curiae opposing the Hindu American Foundation’s demand for preliminary injunction against the proposed textbooks in the Superior Court of California.[65]  In this legal document, FOSA and Ekta appeared as separate organizations.  However, the domain name search for Ekta reveals that it was created in Oct 2000 and is registered under Friends of South Asia![66]  Similarly, in several press releases, Ekta and FOSA are listed as separate organizations[67] in a blatant attempt to inflate organizational representation on particular issues.

k)        Coalition Against Communalism (CAC)

CAC also issued the press release against the Hindu groups in the California.  According to its website, hosted by Ekta, CAC was formed in the San Francisco Bay Area in December 1992 in the wake of the Babri Masjid demolition in Ayodhya[68]. Its website is hosted by Ekta and also points to the websites of FOIL, Sabrang, FOSA, Campaign to Stop Funding Hate, Organizing Youth!, etc.[69]  The front page of CAC is strikingly similar to that of Ekta.  Hence, CAC appears to be nothing more than another shadowy organization with pretty much the same members and leaders as those in Ekta, FOIL, FOSA, etc.

2)       Individuals –

a)       Ra Ravishankar

Ra Ravishankar is simply described as a Graduate Student at University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign.  However, Ravishankar is a very active and hate mongering member of FOIL and has written several articles denouncing Hinduism and Hindus in FOIL’s mouthpiece Ghadar.  In a 2004 article titled Brahmanising the Diaspora, Ravishankar views celebration of the Hindu festival of Holi with suspicion and deems it “seemingly innocuous celebration”[70], implying a sinister agenda behind such celebrations.  Ravishankar then attempts to analyze the HSC’s refutation of biased portrayals of Hinduism in Academia and an alternative view of the Aryan Invasion Theory, and concludes that HSC leaves a “noxious trail… thus establishing that free speech, even in the name of intellectual pursuits remains antithetical to the dogma of Hindu fundamentalism”[71].  In 2005, Ravishankar demoralized marriages and claimed that “marrying is tantamount to supporting the heterosexist agenda of the US state”[72].

b)       Ashiwini Rao

Ashwini K. Rao is listed as an Assistant Professor of Physical Therapy at Columbia University.  Again, Rao’s Communist/Leftist background is completely left out.  Rao is a member of FOIL.  Additionally, both Ravishankar and Rao are mentioned separately from CSFH, as if they are not affiliated.  Rao was one of the main CSFH coordinators against the attack on the youth group Hindu Students Council[73].  Rao blames Dr. Kalyanaraman, a well-known community member and an advisor of one of the Hindu groups in the campaign, for sending anti-Dalit hate mails,[74] but does not provide any evidence of such an incident.  This seems to be a smear campaign against Dr. Kalyanaraman and an attempt to portray these Hindu groups as complicit towards Dalit human rights violations.  Rao continues in the letter and charges the organizations of a “…purely sectarian political agenda, with little or no objective scholarship of Indian or Hindu History.”[75]  However, Rao conveniently hides FOIL’s own political and racist agenda and the lack of objective scholarship on its side.  In addition, the California Board of Education had hired Dr. Shiva Bajpai of the History Department at California State University.[76]  Dr. Bajpai had reviewed the proposed changes on behalf of the Board, which were initially accepted by it before the launch of FOIL’s/FOSA’s spiteful campaign.

Rao is also a member of INSAF (International South Asia Forum), which describes itself as “…a coalition of individuals and organizations dedicated to the promotion of peace and social justice in South Asia.”[77]  However, INSAF also hosts the newsletter of FOIL, Ghadar.[78] The February 2006 issue of INSAF’s bulletin contained detailed interviews with “Chairman Prachanda”[79], the leader of the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) as well as a document from “Comrade Parvati”,[80] justifying the “people’s war” in Nepal.

c)        Shefali Chandra

Chandra is mentioned as an Assistant Professor, History and Women’s Studies, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign.  Her FOIL credentials are absent.  Chandra also co-authored the 2004 FOIL article Brahmanising the Diaspora, along with Ravishankar.  In 2005, in an article title Marriage is Unethical, Chandra comes down hard on the institution of marriage and suggests the following to her readers:

The late capitalist, imperialist world celebrates marriage. And marriage is unethical. If there is one, really powerful thing that you can do, curiously enough without even having to step out of the comfort of your bedroom, it is to oppose marriage.[81]

d)       Angana Chatterji

Chatterji’s anti-Hindu and anti-India views have been discussed in Section 1.01. She was one of the major brains behind the campaign.

e)        Vinay Lal

Lal’s ideological leanings were spotlighted in Section 1.01.  Lal was a major force behind the FOSA/FOIL campaign.


[1] As per a search of the website domain name on http://cqcounter.com/whois/, accessed July 8, 2011

[2] See the bio on Cemendtaur at http://www.chowk.com/writers/Ali-Hasan-Cemendtaur, accessed July 8, 2011

[3] A.H. Cementaur, “Learning the ropes of peace activism”, http://www.peacenews.info/issues/2450/245017.html, accessed July 8, 2011

[5] See the letter to Ruth Green and other members of the California Board of Education, http://www.friendsofsouthasia.org/textbook/DalitFreedomNetwork.pdf, accessed July 8, 2011

[6] Ibid.

[7] See the letter to Ruth Green at http://www.friendsofsouthasia.org/textbook/DSF_Ruth_Green.pdf, accessed July 8, 2011

[8] Ibid.

[9] The Episcopal Church of Rochester’s website hosts a page on DSF and gives a brief bio of Jebaroja Singh, referred to as Roja.  See http://dalitusa.episcopalrochester.org/, accessed July 8, 2011

[10] Viji Sundaram, “Indian Groups Contest California Textbook Content”, February 17, 2006, http://www.mail-archive.com/zestcaste@yahoogroups.com/msg02649.html, originally appeared in India West, accessed July 8, 2011

[11] Please see the following link that describes the DSF, it’s Mission and other relevant organizations details, http://dalitusa.episcopalrochester.org/digital_faith/dfcfiles/523, accessed July 8, 2011

[12] Ibid.

[14] Ibid.

[15] Ibid.[13]

[16] Ibid.[13]

[17] See the list of organization supporting the campaign against Hindu groups at http://www.friendsofsouthasia.org/textbook/LettersOfSupport.html, accessed July 8, 2011

[18] See the Left Sidebar on “Youth Activism” at http://ghadar.insaf.net/June2004/index.htm, accessed July 8, 2011

[19] Ibid.[17]

[20] Ibid.[17]

[21] Malhotra and Neelakandan, 169

[22] Malhotra and Neelakandan Ibid.

[23] See the Background info on the Chair in Tamil Studies, http://web.archive.org/web/20060718064824/http://tamil.berkeley.edu/Tamil%20Chair/Background.html, accessed July 9, 2011

[24] Rajiv Malhotra and Aravindan Neelakandan, Breaking India. Western Interventions in Dravidian and Dalit Faultlines, (India: Manipal Press Ltd, 2011), 168

[25] Malhotra and Neelakandan, Ibid.

[26] Ibid.[24]

[27] Ibid.[24]

[28] Ibid.[24]

[29] Ibid.[24]

[30] Ibid.[24]

[31] Ibid.[24]

[32] Malhotra and Neelakandan, 170

[33] Malhotra and Neelakandan, Ibid.

[34] Ibid.[32]

[35] http://navsarjan.org/aaaa, accessed July 8, 2011

[36] Ibid.

[37] “Martin Macwan receives 17th Annual Robert F. Kennedy Human Rights Award”, November 21, 2000, http://www.uua.org/news/newssubmissions/59206.shtml, access July 8, 2011

[38] “Unitarian Universalist Holdeen India Partner Martin Macwan Featured in New York Times Article”, November 16, 2000, http://www.uua.org/news/newssubmissions/56884.shtml, accessed July 8, 2011

[39] “A brief introduction to India’s caste system”, July/August 2010, http://www.uuworld.org/ideas/articles/24053.shtml, accessed July 8, 2011

[40] Ibid.

[41] Ibid.[39]

[43] Ibid.

[44] “Call for international Christian solidarity to overcome caste-based discrimination”, http://www.oikoumene.org/en/news/news-management/eng/a/article/1634/call-for-international-ch.html?tx_ttnews[cat]=127&cHash=6b51c489bb8709fcd3e285b2794acf64, accessed July 8, 2011

[45] Ibid.

[46] See the program schedule of the Conference at http://www.lutheranworld.org/What_We_Do/OIahr/Issues_Events/OIAHR-DalitConf0309_program.pdf, accessed July 8, 2011

[47] Ibid.

[48] Ibid.[46]

[49] “Written evidence submitted by Christian Aid”, page 2, March 2011, http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201011/cmselect/cmintdev/writev/616/616.pdf, accessed July 8, 2011

[50] Malhotra and Neelakandan, 208-209

[51] “International Conference on Dalit Christian Rights”, Voice of Dalit International, Vol.1, Issue 5, May-June 2006,  http://www.vodintl.org.uk/newslettersix.htm, accessed July 8, 2011

[52] Annual Report of the Dalit Solidarity Network UK, 2007/2008, page 3, http://www.dsnuk.org/DSNUK%20Review%2007%2008.pdf, accessed July 8, 2011

[53] Ibid.

[55] http://www.dsnuk.org/contactus.htm, accessed July 8, 2011

[56] See right Sidebar on Ekta’s website, http://www.ektaonline.org/index.shtml, accessed July 9, 2011

[58] See right Sidebar that lists the various FOIL and affiliate organizations hosted by Ekta, http://www.ektaonline.org/resources/index.htm, accessed July 9, 2011

[59] Ibid.

[60] See Copyright and Hosting Information at the bottom of http://www.friendsofsouthasia.org/, accessed July 9, 2011

[61] Ibid.[58]

[63] Vinay Lal, “Anand Patwardhan”, http://www.sscnet.ucla.edu/southasia/Culture/Cinema/AnandP.html, accessed July 9, 2011

[64] “’I never set out to be a cultural activist’: A Conversation with Anand Patwardhan”, http://www.proxsa.org/resources/ghadar/v3n1/apinterv2.htm, accessed July 9, 2011

[66] As per a search of www.ektaonline.org at http://cqcounter.com/whois/, accessed July 9, 2011

[68] See the note at the bottom of the page http://cac.ektaonline.org/about/, accessed July 9, 2011

[70] Ra Ravishankar and Shefali Chandra, “Brahmanizing the Diaspora”, Ghadar, a publication of the forum of inqualabi leftists, Vol. 7, June 2004, http://ghadar.insaf.net/June2004/MainPages/Editorial2.htm, accessed July 9, 2011

[71] Ibid.

[72] Ra Ravishankar, “On the Marriage Question – an Upper-caste Bourgeois Perspective”, Ghadar, a publication of the forum of inqualabi leftists, Vol. 9, November 2005, http://ghadar.insaf.net/November2005/MainPages/MarriageQuestion.htm, accessed July 9, 2011

[73] See the Press Release “Uncovering the Global Sangh”, January 17, 2008, http://hsctruthout.stopfundinghate.org/, accessed July 9, 2011.  Ashwini Rao is mentioned as one of the CSFH coordinators.

[74] See the letter written to the California Board of Education by Rao at http://www.friendsofsouthasia.org/textbook/LetterToCAStateBoard_AR.html, accessed July 9, 2011

[75] Ibid.

[76] “The California Textbook Review Scandal”, http://www.capeem.org/aboutmore.php, accessed July 9, 2011

[78] The website address http://ghadar.insaf.net/ shows that it is hosted by INSAF, accessed July 10, 2011

[79] See Interview with Chairman Prachanda and People’s Power in Nepal – A Document from Comrade Parvati. http://insaf.net/central/bulletins/200602bull.htmlINSAF Bulletin No. 46, February 2006,  accessed July 21, 2011

[80] Ibid.

[81] Shefali Chandra, “Marriage is Unethical”, Ghadar, a publication of the forum of inqualabi leftists, Vol. 9, November 2005, http://ghadar.insaf.net/November2005/MainPages/MarriageUnethical.htm, accessed July 21, 2011

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